Bengaluru FC became the first Indian side to book a place in the AFC Cup finals as a Sunil Chhetti brace and a third goal from Juan Antonio gave them a 3-1 win over defending champions Johor Darul Ta'zim in the 2nd leg semi-final at home. Benglauru went behind through Johor's Safiq Rahim scoring early in the first half. The two teams were deadlocked 1-1 after the first leg.
The boisterous crowd at the Kanteerava stadium had gone silent when Ta'zim playmaker Safiq Rahim pounced on a rebound to net the first goal of the game. Amrinder Singh was culpable for the goal, parrying it straight to the Johor skipper. Such was Bengaluru's dominance with the ball at their feet.
Juan Antonio marshalled the backline with authority, Chettri was at his menacing best and Eugeneson Lyngdoh's pace on the flanks is something that Johor struggled with all evening. Cameron Watson provided tremendous industry, tirelessly covering ground.
Conceding an early goal and letting their opponents into the contest didn't faze the home side, who relentlessly pressed for the equaliser. The signs were ominous for Johor when, around the half-hour mark, Chhetri smashed the bar from a tight angle from the right. Bengaluru, though, should have done better with the rebound with CK Vineeth and Lyngdoh failing to land the decisive touch.
Chhetri would make amends and score the equaliser, five minutes from the half-time whistle. Johor's slack marking was punished by the Bengaluru skipper, who headed away Lyngdoh's pin-point inswinging corner into the roof of the net.
Bengaluru pressed for the second goal and just minutes into the second half, Chhetri cut in from left but his curler went a couple of feet wide of the post. Bengaluru dominated and it was sheer brilliance from Chettri that gave his side the second goal, finding the back of the net from a ferocious shot from 25 yards out.
Bengaluru would ruthlessly punish the away side's marking once again as Juan Antonio, at the far post, found the corner of the net from a free-kick. Once again, Lyngdoh's delivery was spot on. Johor lost their discipline towards the end as Bengaluru held on to create history.
Bengaluru 3 (Sunil Chhetri x 2, Juan Antonio) beatJohor Darul Ta'zim 1 (Safiq Rahim)
Making transportation more sustainable even with fuel-based automobiles
These innovations can reduce the pollution caused by vehicles.
According to the WHO’s Ambient Air Pollution Database released in 2016, ten of the twenty most polluted cities in the world are in India, with Gwalior and Ahmedabad occupying the second and third positions. Pollution levels are usually expressed in the levels of particulate matter (PM) in the air. This refers to microscopic matter that is a mixture of smoke, metals, chemicals and dust suspended in the atmosphere that can affect human health. Particulate matter is easily inhaled, and can cause allergies and diseases such as asthma, lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Indian cities have some of the highest levels of PM10 (particles smaller than 10 micrometres in diameter) and PM2.5 particles (particles smaller than 2.5 micrometres in diameter). The finer the particulate matter, the deeper into your lungs it can penetrate causing more adverse effects. According to WHO, the safe limits for PM2.5 is 10 micrograms per cubic meter.
Emissions resulting from transportation is regarded as one of the major contributors to pollution levels, especially particulate matter. A study conducted by the Centre for Ecological Sciences of the Indian Institute of Science estimated that the transport sector constitutes 32% of Delhi’s emissions. It makes up 43% of Chennai’s emissions, and around 17% of Mumbai’s emissions.
Controlling emissions is a major task for cities and auto companies. The Indian government, to this end, has set emission standards for automobiles called the Bharat Stage emission standard, which mirrors European standards. This emission standard was first instituted in 1991 and has been regularly updated to follow European developments with a time lag of about 5 years. Bharat Stage IV emission norms have been the standard in 2010 in 13 major cities. To tackle air pollution that has intensified since then, the Indian government announced that Bharat Stage V norms would be skipped completely, and Stage VI norms would be adopted directly in 2020.
But sustainability in transport requires not only finding techniques to reduce the emissions from public and private transport but also developing components that are environment friendly. Car and auto component manufacturers have begun optimising products to be gentler on the environment and require lesser resources to manufacture, operate and maintain.
There are two important aspects of reducing emissions. The first is designing vehicles to consume less fuel. The second is making the emissions cleaner by reducing the toxic elements.
In auto exteriors, the focus is on developing light-weight but strong composite materials to replace metal. A McKinsey study estimates that plastic and carbon fibre can reduce weight by about 20% and 50% respectively. A lighter body reduces the engine effort and results in better fuel economy. Additionally, fuel efficiency can be increased by reducing the need for air conditioning which puts additional load on the vehicle engine thereby increasing fuel consumption. Automotive coatings (paints) and sheets provide better insulation, keep the vehicle cool and reduce the use of air conditioning.
Most emissions are the result of inefficient engines. Perhaps the most significant innovations in making automobiles and mass transport systems more eco-friendly are being done in the engine. Innovations include products like fuel additives, which improve engine performance, resist corrosion and reduce fuel consumption while offering a great driving experience, and catalytic converters that reduce toxic emissions by converting them to less harmful output such as carbon dioxide, Nitrogen and water. Some of these catalytic converters are now capable of eliminating over 90 percent of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides.
All of these are significant measures to bring the negative impacts of vehicular pollution under control. With over 2 million vehicles being produced in India in 2015 alone and the moving to BS VI emission standards, constant innovation is imperative.
Beyond this, in commercial as well as passenger vehicles, companies are innovating with components and processes to enable higher resource efficiency. Long-lasting paint coatings, made of eco-friendly materials that need to be refreshed less often are being developed. Companies are also innovating with an integrated coating process that enables carmakers to cut out an entire step of coating without compromising the colour result or the properties of the coating, saving time, materials and energy. Efforts are being made to make the interiors more sustainable. Parts like the instrument panel, dashboard, door side panels, seats, and locks can all be created with material like polyurethane plastic that is not only comfortable, durable and safe but also easily recyclable. Manufacturers are increasingly adopting polyurethane plastic like BASF’s Elastollan® for these very reasons.
From pioneering the development of catalytic converters in 1975 to innovating with integrated process technology for coatings, BASF has always been at the forefront of innovation when it comes to making transport solutions more sustainable. The company has already developed the technology to handle the move of emissions standards from BS IV to BS VI.
For the future, given the expected rise in the adoption of electric cars—an estimated 5~8 percent of car production is expected to be pure electric or plug-in electric vehicles by 2020—BASF is also developing materials that enable electric car batteries to last longer and achieve higher energy density, making electronic mobility more feasible. To learn more about how BASF is making transport more sustainable, see here.
Watch the video to see how automotive designers experimented with cutting edge materials from BASF to create an innovative concept car.
This article was produced by the Scroll marketing team on behalf of BASF and not by the Scroll editorial team.